Glossary

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to walk

walking around

American Physical Therapy Association

the way in which a person walks including the strategies used to walk, can also refer to the way in which a person runs (usually referred to as "running gait")

A measurement tool used to measure joint range of motion or flexibility of muscles

Contraction of a muscle that does not produce movement or joint motion; e.g. quad sets

the place where two bones meet

joint capsule: fibrous tissue surrounding a joint

joint mobilization: specific stretches of the joint capsule

Tissue that connects bones to each other and provides stability to a joint; the commonly referred to ACL is a ligament of the knee

Abnormal accumulation of fluid that causes swelling most often in arms or legs

Testing developed by physical therapists to evaluate the strength of muscles; your physical therapist may ask you to hold a position against his/her resistance

A soft tissue that crosses the joint(s), contractile in nature it functions to move limbs or stabilize joints

A treatment utilized to strengthen weakened muscles by using electrical impulses to stimulate muscle contraction; frequently used after knee surgery to restrengthen the quadriceps

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative condition in which a joint’s cartilage wears away and joint space narrows leading eventually to “bone on bone” arthritis.

As defined by the APTA "health care professionals who diagnose and treat people of all ages who have medical problems or other health-related conditions that limit their abilities to move and perform functional activities in their daily lives"

movement at several joints in the foot and ankle to produce a flattening in the inside arch of the foot and turn the bottom of the foot facing a more outside and downwards direction; also movement at the forearm to turn the palm down; when a foot is referred to as being "pronated" this means the foot arches are low

also known as "quads"; a group of four muscles on the front of the thigh that provides stability to the knee, assists in raising the leg, and straightens the knee

The amount of mobility available in a joint(s), usually measured in degrees with a goniometer

ROM

Range of Motion

a group of four muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis) that act to stabilize the shoulder and prevent shoulder impingement

a painful condition of the shoulder in which soft tissues surrounding the shoulder are compressed when raising the arm up

usually refers to muscles and fascia surrounding a joint(s), can restrict joint motion and mobility; physical therapists assess its mobility and then provide intervention to release tight soft (is that an oxymoron?) tissues

refers to movement at several joints of the foot and ankle to produce and higher arch and turn the bottom of the foot facing a more inside and upwards direction; also movement at the forearm to turn the palm up; when a foot is referred to as being "supinated" this means the foot arches are high

The ends of a muscle which connects the muscle to a bone; when degenerates causes tendinosis, when inflamed causes tendinitis

Trunk extensors are the muscles that run up and down the back and hold a person erect.

The bones that make up the spinal column